As "the perception was that the Nazis wanted to destroy the morale of the Jewish population", the Jews in the ghettos and elsewhere "felt they had a moral obligation to make a statement against oppression and murder", not only by fighting with arms, but much more widespread by preserving their humanity and thereby resisting in every way "from maintaining schools and prayer groups, to organizing literary and artistic presentations".
Resistance understood this way means an "active struggle for life", trying to save as many lives as possible, and at the same time trying to maintain a certain degree of normality. These attempts carried out by the Jews to maintain their dignity despite the Nazis' systematic effort to dehumanise them have been called "Kiddush ha-Hayyim", meaning "Sanctification of Life".
Especially in the Ghettos, where people were not only systematically starved, but where also schools were closed down, and any form of social service as well as cultural or political activity was cut off and prohibited by the Nazis, the Jewish communities accomplished many different ways of "keeping body and soul together", under "what would seem impossible conditions": synagogues and religious study groups, theatres, orchestra and public libraries, entertainment as well as education for children — all that was kept up and provided often secretly and illegally by the Jewish communities, various mutual aid groups and house committees.
Gutman also assessed the problem of Jewish resistance by "rephrasing the issue in terms of the struggle to survive". The main lifeline of the ghettos was smuggling, and especially most of the food consumed in the ghettos was smuggled in, even though smugglers were severely punished and often killed when caught. Furthermore, a political underground formed itself, "made up mainly of political activists and hardcore members of youth movements", which established and maintained contacts with other ghettos and the outside world and published clandestine newspapers and leaflets that kept people informed about developments inside and outside the ghettos.
Altogether, Gutman concludes, "Jewish life in the ghettos was characterized not so much by passivity and pacifism as by the defiant struggle for survival. F S Florian Seidl Author.
Add to cart. Jewish resistance during the Holocaust After the end of the Second World War, it took some time until historians began to investigate the reaction of European Jews to the Holocaust. Sign in to write a comment. Read the ebook. Communications - Movies and Television Holocaust in Film.
Authenticity of th Film Science "Schindler's List".
The importance of fi In Abbas reasserted part of his thesis to the extent that "the Zionist movement had ties with the Nazis". Abbas attended at Patrice Lumumba University to prepare and present his doctoral thesis.
The institute's director at the time, Yevgeny Primakov , one of the Soviet masterminds of active measures and academic research, appointed a Soviet specialist on Palestine, Vladimir Ivanovich Kisilev as Abbas' dissertation adviser. They communicated mostly in English and Arabic. In the doctoral thesis, Abbas describes the number of Jews murdered in the Nazi Holocaust as agreed upon by mainstream historians, six millions, as a "fantastic lie".
It seems that the interest of the Zionist movement, however, is to inflate this figure [of Holocaust deaths] so that their gains will be greater. This led them to emphasize this figure [six million] in order to gain the solidarity of international public opinion with Zionism. Many scholars have debated the figure of six million and reached stunning conclusions — fixing the number of Jewish victims at only a few hundred thousand.
Following the war , word was spread that six million Jews were amongst the victims and that a war of extermination was aimed primarily at the Jews. The truth is that no one can either confirm or deny this figure.follow
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In other words, it is possible that the number of Jewish victims reached six million, but at the same time it is possible that the figure is much smaller, below one million. Abbas quotes historian Raul Hilberg to support his allegations that fewer than one million Jews were killed. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies denied the assertion that "The historian and author, Raoul Hilberg, thinks that the figure does not exceed ,", and said this is "utterly false".
He wrote that "Professor Hilberg, a distinguished historian and author of the classic study The Destruction of the European Jews , has never said or written any such thing.
Abbas raised doubts regarding the existence of the gas chambers, quoting Robert Faurisson , on the nonexistence of gas chambers. Additionally, he stated that the much smaller number of Jews which he reportedly admitted that the Germans did massacre were actually the victims of a Zionist-Nazi plot:.
The Zionist movement led a broad campaign of incitement against the Jews living under Nazi rule to arouse the government's hatred of them, to fuel vengeance against them and to expand the mass extermination. The thesis also discussed topics such as the Haavara Agreement of , in which the Third Reich agreed with the Jewish Agency to enable Jews to emigrate from Germany directly to Mandate Palestine , which he sees as evidence of collaboration. A global survey of Holocaust denial, published by David S.
Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies in , describes the book as "denying the Holocaust". After Abbas was appointed prime minister of the Palestinian Authority in , the Israel Defense Forces removed excerpts from the Abbas book from its website, including quotes questioning the use of gas chambers and talking of less than one million victims.
According to the Anti-Defamation League, the Simon Wiesenthal Center called for Abbas to clarify his position on the Holocaust in , but he did not do so at that time. Today I would not have made such remarks… Today there is peace and what I write from now on must help advance the peace process. In his May interview with Haaretz , Abbas stated:. I wrote in detail about the Holocaust and said I did not want to discuss numbers. I quoted an argument between historians in which various numbers of casualties were mentioned.
One wrote there were twelve million victims and another wrote there were ,
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