Final Year Thesis On WiMAX
Fourthly, it will provide a security system that can be applied in real life applications to support the security performance of WIMAX network. Obviously, using networks techniques has increased especially for the last ten years because of the immense need for data and for communication terms.
In , a new technology was introduced to our world. WiMAX is the next generation of the wireless technology.
WiMAX for Smart Grid Applications and the Influence of Impulsive Noise
It provides high speed mobile to access World Wide Web by using different devices such as notebook PCs and smart phones. However, it consumes a low cost because it delivers open network and IP mobile to scalable networks data information. Unfortunately, the IEEE Figure 1 shows WiMAX network which can be used with different devices.
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WiMAX can serve as a connection to the public wireless network. It uses optical fiber, microwave link cable or any other elevated speed connectivity. Furthermore, WiMAX uses point to point antennas which join subscriber stations in long distance. Figure 2 shows the way WiMAX works. It is similar to the cell phone where the user sends and receives data that is called uplink and downlink respectively. WiMAX base station has higher broadcasting power which allows sending and receiving data in long distance. When users want to send data information from one or different location, the data will be transferred from one cell to another until the data is received.
Therefore, when the signal transmits from one location to others, it may cause some attenuation and multi path such as reflection and refraction which will in turn affect the quality of the signal. WiMAX supports OFDM, which is actually the relation between transmission schemes that are based on the concept of dividing a given high bit rate data stream to several parallel lower bit rate modulations in which every stream has separate carriers which are called subcarriers.
In this sense, OFDM is like a spectrally efficient version of multicarrier modulation which is used to limit intermarried interference. Figure 4 shows WiMAX radio channel which can be either single or multiple carriers. Also, it displays the bandwidth of Wimax radio channel from 1. As a matter of fact, there are two types of WiMAX technology Therefore, it is in fact a combination of both the fixed and the mobile applications that can provide a good performance of security for using mobility. Needless to say, no system is perfect, and WiMAX has some vulnerabilities in its security.
The fourth section will therefore tackle and discuss related issues. Second, it will evaluate current solutions for the security problems in WiMAX network. There are so many ways to achieve better performance in IEEE Link adaptation can be useful if before transmission the BS as transmitter has the knowledge about channel state. To utilize the radio resources in WiMAX link adaptation plays an important role.
There are different approaches which help in good link adaptation. In , uplink scheduling The purposed algorithm enhances system capacity, bandwidth efficiency and improves delay performance for real time applications. AMC Adaptive Modulation and Coding plays an important role in wireless communication technology for both fixed and mobile environments. In IEEE The previous link adaptation techniques based on MIMO can be classified into two general categories which are analytical and heuristic which explain limitations of packet error rate.
As compare to IEEE But the disadvantage is, each of these connection IDs had to be reestablish on handover which cause more overhead.
There has been related work such as in , where the IEEE Our research includes simulation and detailed analysis of all the five service classes in varied conditions and scenarios. However, the work is only simulated for packet loss whereas there are different types of QoS characteristics such as delay, network load and throughput to be pin pointed in order to improve the performance. In contrast, the writers in  calculate the throughput to improve the performance of WiMAX non transparent mode. The parameters chosen by writers in this work were very basic.
However, the idea was just based on non transparent mode where average throughput inside and outside the The simulation was made for UGS unsolicited grant service, BE best effort and rtPS real time polling service scheduler in , in order to compare the results of all the mentioned above QoS scheduler, writer investigated and implemented a new module to get and compare the results of all three QoS classes.
In , the writers present the flow management framework for multi-hop mobile systems and apply it to QoS scheduling with different priorities. The writers mentioned that application sessions on the Data Link Layer, flows are assigned priorities to distinguish QoS requirements and simulated results are based on single and multi-hop scenarios. Writers in  evaluated on-demand bandwidth allocation in RS.
They develop new algorithm for spectrum efficiency based adaptive resource allocation.
QoS management and performance analysis of WiMAX networks in fixed and highly mobile environments
The writers have in detail look and simulated the results of available throughput, packet loss and delay but here it is needed to consider network load which the writers did not mentioned. Because when the network load increases the QoS automatically decreases . The authors further describe in the paper about QoS and their problems in which they considered the centralized scheduling using UL scheduling. They proposed an architecture named as SQSA named as scheduling QoS scheduling architecture to ensure QoS and to find a specific request for the quality of request. Because in existing legacy system a five message request was needed for bandwidth request but in The efficient and simple resource algorithm proposed in  for relay network to maintain the fairness among users while maximized data rate.
The WiMAX2 have very challenging requirements for transmission rates and there is a growing demand in WiMAX networks for coverage and capacity enhancement. RS have been It can be through the multi hop relay link transparent and the multi hop non transparent where direct link from BS is also possible. The transparent mode can provide better QoS demands for end users as compared to non transparent mode because the transparent mode basically works to extend the capacity of BS not coverage because the end users may access the service directly from BS or through RS depending on the link quality.
Also, it enhances the throughput within the cell.
The performance can be improved in RS by taking all the necessary QoS characteristics such as delay, throughput, pack loss and network load. Most of the work has been done on individual factor by focusing on single term to show the improvement by enhancing the system performance in that specific parameters like in , the writers focus on throughput and packet loss but delay has not been simulated as it is clear from the title but there is no simulation found for delay analysis. The critical aspect in this paper is the antenna height mentioned in simulation parameters which is 10 meters.
The normal antenna height of both BS and RS should be above 25 meters to get better performance and signal strength. The performance of RS can be affected by different Also NLOS non line of sight communication where signal reflects with objects like tall buildings, forest and mountains can affect the signal quality. Throughput enhancement, capacity and reliability can be achieved if the users have better SNR especially in the area where BS signal fades at the edge of the cell.
The RS enhance the link quality, throughput and coverage extensions.
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There are two approaches defined by IEEE In centralized approach, the BS can cover the cell radius where RS also deployed and the second approach called distributed scheme, where RS coordinates the performance of the SSs. RS is also very useful in load balancing. During congestion or high load within same cell RS transfers the traffic of one cell to neighboring cell. The RS extends the coverage where there is no direct link between the BS and the destination node.
The selection process will operate in distributed manner in terms of message complexity and delay. In the first step relay estimates the channel quality between itself and source and itself and destination. For example A is source and z is destination and R is relay. So it can be R and A and R and Z respectively. Source A send ready to send message to destination Z or destination received this message. Also, all other neighbors of source A received this message. The main point we need to keep in mind on this stage that the Relay R assumes the channels are the same from forward source A to relay R and backward relay R to destination Z then each nodes or RS determines the best channel state information CSI value and worst channel state information CSI value should served as relay.
As discussed above, in congested wireless Determining from different relays which one should be selected for communication is a difficult problem, because some RS may have a strong channel link or link quality to the destination, but it may also be heavily loaded with traffic from other SS. In  the authors proposed a relay selection algorithm to meet the QoS standard. However the writer did not mention about the available throughput for each end user and their algorithm improved the performance in accordance with signal to noise ratio and latency.
Also the writer chooses very simple services like HTTP and voice to be checked and meet the demand of user. The writer suggests through effective relay selection algorithm, RS can play an important role by considering the QoS parameters in order to get better performance.
There are different types of relay selection methods mentioned in by the writer. In  the author proposes a cross-layer design relay selection algorithm for two hop relay networks. The authors introduce a novel function for relay and proposed algorithm by considering both channel state information on physical layer and queue state information at data link layer. As compare to this, the authors of  proposed a method based on geographical information, aiming to minimize the symbol error probability SEP.
Also the suitable relay is determined withthe aim of minimizing the symbol error probability so the proposed scheme can achieve better performance in selection process. Relay mainly works as half duplex and DF technique can be applied for error free communication through RS. However, the half duplex DF, the transmission of RS can be divided into two time slots.
In the first attempt, the source transmits the data to the RS where it demodulates and decodes received information. In the second phase, the RS encode again the received data and retransmit it to the EN. There is also an Then the pilot sequence used by BS estimate the instantaneous SNRs of that RS for selection process but this type of scenario can cause time delay.
It works on peak rates of its capacity that is Mbps that increase VoIP capacity with low latency to meet the requirement of 4G International telecommunication union. IEEE The architecture of IEEE Figure 2. In OFDM the frequencies are combined and are orthogonal with each other for data to be transmitted over a radio resource. The Figure 2. The main advantage of using OFDM is the data stream can be divided into low rate streams then each stream is converted to sub carrier with the help of adaptive modulation scheme.
One of the major advantages of OFDM is frequency signals with data can be transmitted by using different modulation schemes depending on available resources and SNR As it depends on SNR like if the value of SNR is high then the powerful modulation can be used, however when the SNR is low then the lower type of modulation scheme can be used. In WiMAX, there are four different modulation schemes used which are as follows: 2. The QPSK is popular scheme where two bits accommodate one symbol.
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